Forsee Power – Building a Smart Battery System

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Building Steps

Step 1: Cells

An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions. Cells can be made of different combinations of electrochemistry and packaged in different shapes. Cells can be pouch, prismatic or cylindrical.

The benefits of lithium-ion cells:

  • 4x lighter than lead batteries
  • Large electronegativity
  • Lightest or least dense metal

Step 2: Stack

It is the mechanical and electrical assembly of cells with components such as busbar, casing and others.

Cells + Busbar (device that carries the current) + Others (cables, voltage harness) + Casing = Stack

Step 3: BMC

It is a unit that contains a BMS (the card that manages the system) and a PDU (the card that manages the power distribution. BMS + PDU = BMC.

We call it a smart battery system because of the batter management system (BMS), which ensures the battery’s correct operation and safety, through:

  • Monitoring cell voltage and health.
  • Estimating charge/discharge currents and the battery’s temperature.
  • Communicating with the Master BMS]

Step 4: Pack

It is made of several stacks connected to several CMods and a PDU. CMod is a board that provides cell voltage and temperature to BMS, and balances cells when needed. PDU is the power distribution unit that contains the BMC, power contactors, current sensor and others.

Several stacks + Several CMods + PDU = Pack

Step 5: Smart Battery System

It is made of several packs connected to a Master BMS. A Master BMS is a device used in multi-string systems to gather all data from the BMC and to work as a bridge between the BMC and the client system.

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